Understanding Neutrophil-bacterial interactions in chronic lung disease
Division of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
Level 5, Mailbox 12
School of Medicine
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School
+(44) 01382 383642
Dr James Chalmers was an MRC training fellow in Edinburgh prior to moving to Dundee and was awarded a Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Fellowship in 2012. He currently works in the Division of Molecular Microbiology in the College of Life Sciences, University of Dundee.
His research interests are in translational and clinical aspects of respiratory infections and the mechanisms of bacterial colonisation in chronic lung disease.
He has received early career investigator awards from the British Thoracic Society, European Respiratory Society and Scottish Thoracic Society. He is a current member of the British Thoracic Society Science and Research committee, the European Respiratory Society long range planning committee and the American Thoracic Society Microbiology, Tuberculosis and Pulmonary infections program committees. He is Associate Editor of the upcoming European Respiratory Monograph on Community-acquired pneumonia.
The role of the Ess secretion system in Staphylococcus aureus virulence
Staphylococcus aureus causes chronic airway infections in patients with cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The mechanism by which S.aureus evades host immunity to survive in the airway is not known.
Funded by the Wellcome Trust, Dr Chalmers is studying a recently described type VII secretion system in Staphylococcus aureus and how this system contributes to virulence and the establishment of chronic respiratory infections. This work is performed in the Division of Molecular Microbiology at the University of Dundee led by Professor Tracy Palmer and in collaboration with Dr Robert Ryan (University of Dundee) and the Dundee Drug Discovery Unit.
Mechanisms of chronic bacterial colonisation in bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Dr Chalmers is principle investigator on a Chief Scientist Office funded study investigating the genetic and immunological contributors to chronic bacterial colonisation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchiectasis. This work is in collaboration with Professor Colin Palmer, Dr Stuart Schembri and Professor Sara Marshall.
His related work in bronchiectasis has identified a role for the lectin pathway of complement (mannose binding lectin and ficolin-2) in susceptibility to chronic bacterial colonisation and new mechanisms of airway neutrophil dysfunction in bronchiectasis.
Clinical and translational research in Respiratory infections
Dr Chalmers is involved in clinical and translational studies in community-acquired pneumonia, bronchiectasis and COPD.
He is collaborating on Tenovus funded studies of rehabilitation after exacerbations of bronchiectasis (PI: Dr Thomas Fardon) and the effects of inhaled corticosteroids on pneumonia risk and bacterial colonisation (PI: Dr Stuart Schembri) in addition to administering the Tayside bronchiectasis register (TAYBRIDGE study).
He works with Dr Peter Williamson and Dr Philip Short on a national multicentre study of COPD exacerbations (the EXODUS study).
- Chalmers JD, Finch S. Sputum colour in bronchiectasis- the original neutrophil biomarker. Respirology 2013 in press
- Gifford A, Chalmers JD. The role of neutrophils in cystic fibrosis. Current Opinion in Haematology 2013 in press
- Salih W, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Simplification of the IDSA/ATS criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2013 in press
- Chalmers JD, Rother C, Salih W, Ewig S. Healthcare associated pneumonia does not accurately identify potentially resistant pathogens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Infect Dis 2013 in press.
- Murray C, Shaw A, Lloyd M, Smith RP, Fardon TC, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce antibiotic duration in lower respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 2013 in press.
- Chalmers JD. Macrolides and Mortality in Severe Community-acquired pneumonia. Critical Care Medicine in press.
- Taylor JK, Fleming GB, Singanayagam A, Hill AT, Chalmers JD. Risk factors for aspiration in community-acquired pneumonia. Analysis of a hospitalized UK cohort. Am J Med 2013; 126(11):995-1001.
- Chalmers JD, Black E. Critical Care Transition and prevention of ICU readmissions: a bridge over troubled waters. Critical Care Medicine. in press.
- Mandal P, Morice A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Symptoms of airway reflux predict exacerbations and quality of life in bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2013; 107(7):1008-13.
- Aliberti S, Cillonez C, Chalmers JD, Torres A, Blasi F. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitalized patients coming from the community with pneumonia: a European perspective. Thorax 2013; 68(11):997-9.
- Schembri S, Williamson PA, Short PM, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Taylor JK, Singanayagam A, Hill AT, Chalmers JD. Cardiovascular events following Clarithromycin use in lower respiratory tract infections: analysis of two prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2013;346;f1235.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. The evidence for severity assessment tools to guide empirical antibiotic prescribing decisions in community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013; 8:653-662.
- Chalmers JD, McHugh BJ, Doherty CJ, Govan JRW, Kilpatrick DC, Hill AT. Mannose binding lectin deficiency is associated with disease severity in non-CF bronchiectasis. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013; 1(3):224-242.
- Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Taylor JK, Rutherford J, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. An evaluation of clinical stability criteria to predict hospital course in community-acquired pneumonia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2013. 19(12):1174-80.
- Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. Obesity is associated with improved survival in community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2013; 42(1):180-7.
- Singanayagam A, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Predictors of mortality in hospitalized adults with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Annals of the American Thoracic Society 2013; 10(2):81-9.
- Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Mechanisms of immune dysfunction and bacterial persistence in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Molecular Immunology 2013; 55(1):27-34.
- Mandal P, Sidhu MK, Donaldsn LS, Chalmers JD, Smith MP, Turnbull K, Scott J, Hill AT. Eight-weekly intravenous antibiotics is beneficial in severe bronchiectasis. QJM 2013;106(1):27-33.
- Tiernan JF, Gilhooley S, Jones ME, Chalmers JD, McSparron C, Laurenson IF, Hill AT. Does an interferon-gamma release assay change practice in possible latent tuberculosis. QJM 2013;106(2):139-46.
- Chalmers JD, McHugh BJ, Doherty CJ, Govan JR, Hill AT. Vitamin-D deficiency is associated with chronic bacterial colonisation and disease severity in non-CF bronchiectasis. Thorax 2012; 68(1):39-47.
- Chalmers JD, Smith MP, McHugh B, Doherty C, Govan JRW, Hill AT. Short and long term antibiotic therapy reduces airway and systemic inflammation in non-CF bronchiectasis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012; 186(7):657-65.
- Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Diagnosis in suspected lower respiratory infection and therapy resistance. Praxis (Bern 1994) 2012;101(3):191-4.
- Mandal P, Craxton R, Chalmers JD, Gilhooley S, Laurenson IF, McSparron C, Stevenson J, Hill AT. Contacting tracing in pulmonary and non-pulmonary tuberculosis. QJM 2012; 105(8);741-7.
- Kilpatrick DC, Chalmers JD. Human L-ficolin (ficolin-2) and its clinical significance. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012:2012:138797.
- Chalmers JD, Taylor JK, Singanayagam A, Fleming GB, Mandal P, Choudhury G, Akram AR, Hill AT. Epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes in healthcare associated pneumonia: a UK cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(2):107-13.
- Chalmers JD, Mandal P, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Choudhury G, Scally C, Short PM, Hill AT. Severity assessment tools to guide ICU admission in community-acquired pneumonia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2011; 37(9):1409-20.
- Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Predicting mortality with severity assessment tools in outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia. QJM 2011; 104(10):871-9.
- Chalmers JD, Taylor J, Mandal P, Chowdhury G, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Hill AT. Validation of the IDSA/ATS minor criteria for ICU admission in community-acquired pneumonia patients without major criteria or contraindications to ICU care. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(6):503-11.
- Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Elder DH, Chalmers JD. Is community-acquired pneumonia an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease? Eur Respir J 2011; 39(1):187-96.
- Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Wood V, Chalmers JD. Factors associated with severe illness in Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: implications for triage in primary and secondary care. Journal of Infection 2011; 63(4):243-51.
- Chalmers JD, Rutherford J. Can we use severity assessment tools to increase outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia? Eur J Intern Med 2012;23(5):398-406.
- Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Investigation of non resolving presumed lower respiratory tract infection in primary care. BMJ 2011; 343:d5840.
- Murray MP, Govan JRW, Docherty CJ, Chalmers JD, Greening AP, Simpson AJ, Haslett C, Hill AT. A randomised controlled trial of nebulised gentamicin in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183(4):491-9.
- Chalmers JD, Fleming GB, Hill AT, Kilpatrick DC. Impact of mannose binding lectin (MBL) insufficiency on the course of cystic fibrosis: a review and meta-analysis. Glycobiology 2011;21(3):271-82.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Choudhury G, Mandal P, Hill AT. Safety and Efficacy of CURB65 guided antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66(2):416-23.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Akram AR, Hill AT. Impact of inhaled corticosteroid use on outcome in COPD patients admitted with pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2011; 38(1):36-41.
- Mandal P, Chalmers JD, Choudhury G, Akram AR, Hill AT. Vascular complications are associated with poor outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. QJM 2011;104(6):489-95.
- Choudhury G, Chalmers JD, Mandal P, Akram AR, Murray MP, Short PM, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Physician Judgement is a crucial adjunct to pneumonia severity scores in low risk patients. Eur Respir J. 2011; 38(3):643-8.
- Riquelme R, Jimenez P, Videla AJ, Lopez H, Chalmers J, Singanayagam A, Riquelme M et al. CAPO STUDY GROUP. Predicting mortality in hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011; 15(4):542-546.
- Choudhury G, Mandal P, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. 7 day antibiotic courses have similar efficacy to prolonged courses in severe community acquired pneumonia- a propensity-adjusted analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2011;17(12):1852-8.
- Singanayagam A, Scally C, Al-Khairalla MZ, Leitch L, Hill LE, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. A comparison of biomarkers with the PE severity index for severity assessment in normotensive patients with acute PE. QJM 2011;104(2):125-31.
- Chalmers JD, Akram AR, Hill AT. Increasing outpatient treatment of mild community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(4):858-64.
- Akram A, Singanayagam A, Choudhury G, Mandal P, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Incidence and prognostic implications of acute kidney injury on admission in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010, 138(4):825-32.
- Chalmers JD, Short PM, Mandal P, Akram AR, Hill AT. Statins in community-acquired pneumonia: Evidence from experimental and clinical studies. Respir Med. 2010; 104(8):1081-91.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Mandal P, Short PM, Choudhury G, Wood V, Hill AT. Severity assessment tools for predicting mortality in hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2010; 65(10):878-83.
- Chalmers JD, Al-Khairalla M, Short PM, Fardon TC, Winter JH. Proposed changes to management of lower respiratory tract infections in response to the Clostridium difficile epidemic. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65(4):608-18.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Scally C, Akram AR, Al-Khairalla MZ, Leitch L, Hill LE, Hill AT. Right ventricular dilation on CT pulmonary angiogram independently predicts mortality in pulmonary embolism. Respir Med 2010 10(7):1057-62.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of pneumonia: evidence for and against the proposed association. QJM 2010; 103(6):379-85.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Scally C, Fawzi A, Murray MP, Hill AT. Risk Factors for complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema on presentation to hospital with community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2009; 64(7);592-7.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Scally C, Hill AT. Admission D-Dimer can identify low risk patients with community acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53(5);633-8.
- Singayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Severity assessment in community-acquired pneumonia: a review. QJM 2009; 102(6):379-88.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Admission hypoglycaemia is associated with adverse outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2009; 34(4):932-9.
- Chalmers JD. ICU admission and severity assessment in community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care 2009; 13(3):156.
- Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. Budesonide and risk of pneumonia. Lancet 2009;374(9707);2050.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Predicting the Need for Mechanical Ventilation and/or inotropic support for young adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis.2008; 47(12):1571-4.
- Chalmers JD, Hill AT. A powerful new severity score- but will anyone use it? Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47(10):1363.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Murray MP, Hill AT. Prior Statin Use is Associated with Improved Outcomes in Community Acquired Pneumonia. Am J Med. 2008;121(11):1002-1007.e1
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Systolic blood pressure is superior to other haemodynamic predictors of outcome in community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2008; 63(8):698-702.
- Kilpatrick DC, Chalmers JD, MacDonald SL, Murray MP, Mohammed A, Hart SP, Matsushita M, Hill AT. Stable bronchiectasis is associated with low serum L-Ficolin concentrations. Clinical Respiratory Journal 2008; 3(1); 29-33.
- Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. C- reactive protein is an independent predictor of severity in community acquired pneumonia. Am J Med 2008;121(3):219-225.
- Blyth KG, Syyed R, Chalmers J, Foster JE, Saba T, Naeije R, Melot C, Peacock AJ. Pulmonary arterial pulse pressure and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Respir Med. 2007;101(12):2495-501.
James is actively involved in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. One of his major interests in encouraging undergraduates and young physicians to take part in research projects. Some recent successes for supervised undergraduate (UG) students and postgraduates (PG) include:
Catriona Rother (UG) project: Healthcare associated pneumonia- investigating the validity of a new definition of pneumonia. Won ERS Young investigator award. 2013 and University of Dundee Ethicon Prize 2013.
Waleed Salih (PG) project: Microbiology and antibiotic therapy in bronchiectasis: European Respiratory Society best abstract award 2013.
Lucy Poppelwell (UG) project: Predicting outcome in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Won DRAMS best presentation award 2013
Dr Michelle Harrison (PG): Project: Predictors of mortality in hospitalised exacerbations of COPD)- Won British Thoracic Society Young Investigator award 2012 and Discovery Dundee Young Investigator Award 2013.
Dr Anika Singanayagam (PG): Project: The obesity paradox in community-acquired pneumonia: Won ERS Young Research Grant in respiratory infections 2012.
Ross Archibald (UG) project: A scoring system to predict outcome in exacerbations of COPD. University of Dundee Ethicon Prize 2011.
Gilly B Fleming (UG) Project: Role of Galectin-3 in predicting short and long term outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. Won ATRIUM undergraduate research award. 2010
Victoria Wood (UG) project: Clinical features and outcomes of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection. British Lung Foundation award 2010.
In addition, he was co-organiser of a European Respiratory Society course in bronchiectasis. http://www.erscongress2011.org/education/courses/item/4739-online-course-on-hot-topics-in-the-management-of-non-cf-bronchiectasis.html.
Invited presentations (previous and forthcoming)
2014 American Thoracic Society: “Hot topic, macrolide safety in respiratory disease”
2014 American Thoracic Society: “A worldwide perspective on MDR pathogens”
2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases- “Macrolide safety in respiratory infections.”
2014 CHEST world Congress; ”non-responding pneumonia”
2014 CHEST world congress; “The role of inhaled antibiotics in bronchiectasis”
2013 Scottish Thoracic Society conference- “Controversies in Respiratory Infection”
2013 Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queens University Belfast Symposium- “Biomarkers in respiratory infection”
2012 European Respiratory Society Annual Congress in Vienna – “Severe community-acquired pneumonia”
2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases annual congress- “Severity assessment in community acquired pneumonia "
2012 American Thoracic Society conference
2012 British Thoracic Society conference
2013 European Lung science conference
2013 American Thoracic Society conference
2013 European Respiratory Society Conference