Understanding Neutrophil-bacterial interactions in chronic lung disease
Division of Molecular & Clinical Medicine
Level 5, Mailbox 12
School of Medicine
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School
+(44) 01382 383642
Dr James Chalmers did his undergraduate training in Glasgow and trained in Respiratory Medicine in Edinburgh before moving to Dundee. He is a Discovery Fellow (Senior Clinical Lecturer) and Consultant Respiratory Physician with a subspecialist interest in difficult to treat airways disease, particularly bronchiectasis, COPD, severe asthma and cystic fibrosis.
As a clinical academic, he undertook an MRC training fellowship in the Centre for Inflammation Research in Edinburgh followed by a Wellcome Trust Postdoctoral Fellowship in the Division of Molecular Microbiology at the University of Dundee before establishing his own research group in 2013.
Severe and disabling respiratory diseases such as bronchiectasis, COPD and severe asthma are characterised by changes in the bacterial communities in the lung (“the microbiome”), promoting neutrophil mediated inflammation with consequent lung remodelling and disease progression. There are no proven therapies to directly target neutrophilic inflammation or the lung microbiome, leaving millions of patients without effective treatment.
The Chalmers group is multidisciplinary consisting of scientists, physicians, nursing, project management and informatics expertise. The groups primary objective is to find better ways of identifying lung inflammation and infection and to develop new therapies that can target this treatment resistance type of inflammation to improve patient outcomes.
Improving outcomes for patients with bronchiectasis
Bronchiectasis is a chronic disabling lung disease characterised by neutrophil mediated airway inflammation and chronic bacterial infection. It has been described as an “orphan disease” due to a lack of research and available treatments. In 2012 with colleagues from the European Respiratory Society, James established the European Bronchiectasis Network and Registry (EMBARC). This network now links more than 150 centres across Europe in performing bronchiectasis research studies. The EMBARC registry (www.bronchiectasis.eu) is funded by the European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative and supported by the European Respiratory Society and Charities.
Work in the Dundee group has included the development of the first validated clinical prediction tool for bronchiectasis (www.bronchiectasisseverity.com), identification of bacterial load as the key driver of neutrophil mediated inflammation and identification of several genetic, inflammatory and clinical risk factors for disease progression.
Our current laboratory work focusses on understanding the inflammatory response, including how neutrophil behaviour is altered in bronchiectasis towards a phenotype favouring the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps and impaired bacterial killing. Studies are underway to develop diagnostics for patient stratification as well as clinical trials of novel therapies to reverse neutrophil dysfunction. To facilitate these studies we have established one of the worlds largest biorepositories for bronchiectasis (The TAYBRIDGE cohort) which includes longitudinal serum, DNA and sputum samples from over 600 well characterised patients.
Targeting the lung microbiome
The airways harbour diverse polymicrobial communities that are altered in disease and contribute towards the development and persistence of neutrophil mediated inflammation. We have established in house facilities to sequence the upper and lower airway microbiome for bacteria and other microorganisms and are now applying these technologies to large populations of patients with COPD, bronchiectasis and severe asthma.
Most importantly, we are studying the response of the microbiome to common therapies such as inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators and antibiotics in controlled clinical trials with the aim of evaluating whether the airway microbiome and neutrophilic inflammation can be therapeutically modulated.
Work in this area is funded by the Wellcome Trust, Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office and the pharmaceutical industry.
Patient phenotyping in COPD
Using a combination of biomarkers, genetics, clinical characteristics and the airway microbiome, it is possible to identify patients with COPD that have distinct outcomes and distinct pathophysiology- so called endotypes.
The objective of this workstream is to better target treatments for COPD, reducing the harms of treatment with drugs such as inhaled corticosteroids while maximising benefits by selecting the “right patients”.
Work in this area is funded by the Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office, Charities and the pharmaceutical industry.
Antimicrobial resistance and antibiotic stewardship
AMR is a public health crisis. Respiratory infections are the leading cause of antibiotic prescription both in the community and in hospitals. As a result, we have a responsibility to target antbibiotic treatments appropriately. As part of this workstream we will use some of the tools described above such as patient phenotyping and diagnostics to try to reduce unnecessary antibiotic use. In-vitro work in this area includes studies in to the type VII secretion system of Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) to identify new therapies. Work in community-acquired pneumonia seeks to understand the drivers of antibiotic resistance and the clinical impact of AMR, as well as the role of commonly used antibiotics like macrolides.
Our group is very grateful for the generous support of the following funders
- Wellcome Trust
- Medical Research Council
- European Union Innovative Medicines Initiative
- Scottish Government Chief Scientist Office
- National Institute for Health Research
- Tenovus Scotland
- The European Respiratory Society
McDonnell MJ, Aliberti S, Goeminne PC, Restrepo MI, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, Wilson R, Loebinger MR, Skrbic D, Obradovic D, De Soyza A, Ward C, Laffey JG, Rutherford R, Chalmers JD. Co-morbidities and the risk of mortality in patients with bronchiectasis. An international cohort study. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2016 in press.
Cao Z, Casabona MG, Kneuper H, Chalmers JD, Palmer T. The type VII secretion system of Staphylococcus aureus scretes a nuclease toxin that targets competitor bacteria. Nature Microbiology 2016 in press.
McDonnell MJ, Aliberti S, Goeminne PC, Dimakou K, Zucchetti SC, Davidson J, Ward C, Laffey JG, Finch S, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, Skrbic D, Obradovic D, Cowman S, Loebinger MR, Rutherford RM, De Soyza A, Chalmers JD. Multidimensional severity assessment in bronchiectasis- analysis of 7 European Cohorts. Thorax 2016 in press.
Sibila O, Garcia-Bellmunt L, Giner J, Rodrigo-Troyano A, Suarez-Cuartin G, Torrego A, Castillo D, Solanes I, Mateus EF, Vidal S, Sanchez-Reus F, Sala E, Cosio BG, Restrepo MI, Anzueto A, Chalmers JD, Plaza V. Airway mucin 2 is decreased in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with bacterial colonization. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2016; 13(5):636-42.
Rodrigo-Troyano A, Suarez-Cuartin G, Peiro M, Barril S, Castillo D, Sanchez-Reus F, Plaza V, Restrepo MI, Chalmers JD, Sibila O. Pseudomonas aeruginosa resistance patterns and clinical outcomes in hospitalized exacerbations of COPD. Respirology 2016 in press
Chalmers JD, Akram AR, Singanayagam A, Wilcox MH, Hill AT. Risk factors for Clostridium difficile infection in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. J Infect 2016;73(1):45-53.
Aliberti S, Hill AT, Mantero M, Battaglia S, Centanni S, Lo Cicero S, Lacedonia D, Saetta M, Chalmers JD, Blasi F. Quality standards for the management of bronchiectasis in Italy: a national audit. Eur Respir J 2016;48(1):244-8.
Chalmers JD, McDonnell MJ, Rutherford R, Davidson J, Finch S, Crichton M, Dupont L, Hill AT, Fardon TC, De Soyza A, Aliberti S, Goeminne P. The generalizability of bronchiectasis randomized controlled trials: a multicentre cohort study. Respir Med 2016;112:51-8.
Aliberti S, Lonni S, Dore S, McDonnell MJ, Goeminne PC, Dimakou K, Fardon TC, Rutherford R, Pesci A, Restrepo MI, Sotgiu G, Chalmers JD. Clinical phenotypes in adult patients with bronchiectasis. Eur Respir J 2016;47(4):1113-22.
Sibila O, Suarez-Cuartin G, Rodrigo-Troyano A, Fardon TC, Finch S, Mateus EF, Garcia-Bellmunt L, Castillo D, Vidal S, Sanchez-Reus F, Restrepo MI, Chalmers JD. Secreted mucins and airway bacterial colonization in non-CF bronchiectasis. Respirology 2016; 20(7):1082-8.
Lonni S, Chalmers JD, Goeminne PC, McDonnell MJ, Dimakou K, De Soyza A, Polverino E, Van de Kerkhove C, Rutherford R, Davidson J, Rosales E, Pesci A, Restrepo MI, Aliberti S. Etiology of non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis in adults and its relationship to severity. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015; 12(12):1764-70.
Finch S, McDonnell MJ, Abo-Leyah H, Aliberti S, Chalmers JD. A comprehensive analysis of the impact of Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonisation on prognosis in adult bronchiectasis. Ann Am Thorac Soc 2015; 12(11):1602-11.
Hsu CH, Reyes LF, Orihuela CJ, Buitrago R, Anzueto A, Soni NJ, Levine S, Peters J, Hinojosa CA, Aliberti S, Sibila O, Rodriguez A, Chalmers JD, Martin-Loeches I, Bordon J, Blanquer J, Sanz F, Marcos PJ, Rello J, Solé-Violán J, Restrepo MI. Chromogranin A levels and mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Biomarkers 2015; 20(3):171-6.
Cavallazzi R, Wiemken T, Arnold FW, Luna CM, Bordon J, Kelley R, Feldman C, Chalmers JD, Torres A, Ramirez J. Outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit. Respir Med 2015:109(6):743-50.
Bedi P, Sidhu MK, Donaldson LS, Chalmers JD, Smith MP, Turnbull K, Pentland JL, Scott J, Hill AT. A Prospective cohort study of the use of domicillary intravenous antibiotics in bronchiectasis. NPJ Prim Care Respir Med 2014;24:14090.
Chalmers JD, Goemmine PC, Aliberti S, McDonnell M, Lonni S, Davidson J, Poppelwell L, Salih W, Pesci A, Dupont LJ, Fardon TC, De Soyza A, Hill AT. The Bronchiectasis Severity Index: an international derivation and validation study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2014; 189(5):576-85
E Black, Cole S, Chalmers JD, Wallis C. Renal replacement therapy in Scottish Critical Care Units: a national prospective study of practices. Journal of the Intensive Care Society 2015; 16(1):45-51.
Chalmers JD, Matsushita M, Kilpatrick DC, Hill AT. No strong relationship between the lectin pathway of complement and susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. Inflammation 2015; 38(4):1731-7.
Harrison M, Short PM, Williamson P, Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Schembri S. Thrombocytosis is associated with increased short and long term mortality after exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a role for anti-platelet therapy? Thorax 2014;69(7):609-15.
Mandal P, Chalmers JD, Graham C, Harley C, Sidhu MK, Doherty C, Govan JW, Sethi T, Davison DJ, Rossi AG, Hill AT. Atorvastatin as a stable treatment in bronchiectasis: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2014;2(6):455-63.
Chalmers JD, Fleming GB, Rutherford J, Matsushita M, Kilpatrick DC, Hill AT. Ficolin-2 in hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Inflammation 2014; 37(5):1635-41.
Aliberti S, Brambilla AM, Chalmers JD, Cilloniz C, Ramirez J, Bignamini A, Prina E, Polverino E, Tarsia P, Pesci A, Torres A, Blasi F, Cosentini R. Phenotyping community-acquired pneumonia according to the presence of acute respiratory failure and severe sepsis. Respir Res 2014;15:27.
Kneuper H, Cao ZP, Twomey KB, Zoltner M, Jäger F, Cargill JS, Chalmers JD, van der Kooi-Pol MM, van Dijl JM, Ryan RP, Hunter WN, Palmer T. Heterogeneity in ess transcriptional organization and variable contribution of the ess/Type VII protein secretion system to virulence across closely related Staphylococcus aureus strains. Mol Microbol 2014 Sep;93(5):928-43
Murray C, Shaw A, Lloyd M, Smith RP, Fardon TC, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. A multidisciplinary intervention to reduce antibiotic duration in lower respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014; 69(2):515-8.
Taylor JK, Fleming GB, Singanayagam A, Hill AT, Chalmers JD. Risk factors for aspiration in community-acquired pneumonia. Analysis of a hospitalized UK cohort. Am J Med 2013; 126(11):995-1001.
Mandal P, Morice A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Symptoms of airway reflux predict exacerbations and quality of life in bronchiectasis. Respiratory Medicine 2013;107(7):1008-13.
Chalmers JD, McHugh BJ, Doherty CJ, Govan JRW, Kilpatrick DC, Hill AT. Mannose binding lectin deficiency and disease severity in non-CF bronchiectasis: a prospective study. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013; 1(3):175-274.
Aliberti S, Cillonez C, Chalmers JD, Torres A, Blasi F. Multidrug-resistant pathogens in hospitalized patients coming from the community with pneumonia: a European perspective. Thorax 2013; 68(11):997-9.
Schembri S, Williamson PA, Short PM, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Taylor JK, Singanayagam A, Hill AT, Chalmers JD. Cardiovascular events following Clarithromycin use in lower respiratory tract infections: analysis of two prospective cohort studies. BMJ 2013;346;f1235.
Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Taylor JK, Rutherford J, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. An evaluation of clinical stability criteria to predict hospital course in community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Microbiol Infect 2013;19(12):1174-80.
Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. Obesity is associated with improved survival in community-acquired pneumonia. European Respiratory Journal 2013; 42(1):180-7.
Tiernan JF, Gilhooley S, Jones ME, Chalmers JD, McSparron C, Laurenson IF, Hill AT. Does an interferon-gamma release assay change practice in possible latent tuberculosis. QJM 2013;106(2):139-46.
Mandal P, Sidhu MK, Donaldson LS, Chalmers JD, Smith MP, Turnbull K, Scott J, Hill AT. Eight-weekly intravenous antibiotics is beneficial in severe bronchiectasis. QJM 2013;106(1):27-33.
Chalmers JD, Smith MP, McHugh B, Doherty C, Govan JRW, Hill AT. Short and long term antibiotic therapy reduces airway and systemic inflammation in non-CF bronchiectasis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012; 186(7):657-65.
Chalmers JD, McHugh BJ, Doherty CJ, Govan JR, Hill AT. Vitamin-D deficiency is associated with chronic bacterial colonisation and disease severity in non-CF bronchiectasis. Thorax 2012; 68(1):39-47.
Mandal P, Craxton R, Chalmers JD, Gilhooley S, Laurenson IF, McSparron C, Stevenson J, Hill AT. Contacting tracing in pulmonary and non-pulmonary tuberculosis. QJM 2012; 105(8);741-7.
Chalmers JD, Taylor JK, Singanayagam A, Fleming GB, Mandal P, Choudhury G, Akram AR, Hill AT. Epidemiology, antibiotic therapy and clinical outcomes in healthcare associated pneumonia: a UK cohort study. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 53(2):107-13.
Chalmers JD, Taylor J, Mandal P, Chowdhury G, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Hill AT. Validation of the IDSA/ATS minor criteria for ICU admission in community-acquired pneumonia patients without major criteria or contraindications to ICU care. Clin Infect Dis 2011; 53(6):503-11.
Murray MP, Govan JRW, Docherty CJ, Chalmers JD, Greening AP, Simpson AJ, Haslett C, Hill AT. A randomised controlled trial of nebulised gentamicin in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011; 183(4):491-9.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Choudhury G, Mandal P, Hill AT. Safety and Efficacy of CURB65 guided antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia. J Antimicrob Chemother 2011; 66(2):416-23.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Akram AR, Hill AT. Impact of inhaled corticosteroid use on outcome in COPD patients admitted with pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2011; 38(1):36-41.
Mandal P, Chalmers JD, Choudhury G, Akram AR, Hill AT. Vascular complications are associated with poor outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. QJM 2011;104(6):489-95.
Choudhury G, Chalmers JD, Mandal P, Akram AR, Murray MP, Short PM, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Physician Judgement is a crucial adjunct to pneumonia severity scores in low risk patients. Eur Respir J 2011; 38(3):643-8.
Riquelme R, Jimenez P, Videla AJ, Lopez H, Chalmers J, Singanayagam A, Riquelme M et al. CAPO STUDY GROUP. Predicting mortality in hospitalized patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2011; 15(4):542-546.
Choudhury G, Mandal P, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. 7 day antibiotic courses have similar efficacy to prolonged courses in severe community acquired pneumonia- a propensity-adjusted analysis. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 2011;17(12):1852-8.
Singanayagam A, Scally C, Al-Khairalla MZ, Leitch L, Hill LE, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. A comparison of biomarkers with the PE severity index for severity assessment in normotensive patients with acute PE. QJM 2011;104(2):125-31.
Akram A, Singanayagam A, Choudhury G, Mandal P, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Incidence and prognostic implications of acute kidney injury on admission in patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Chest 2010, 138(4):825-32.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Scally C, Akram AR, Al-Khairalla MZ, Leitch L, Hill LE, Hill AT. Right ventricular dilation on CT pulmonary angiogram independently predicts mortality in pulmonary embolism. Respir Med 2010 10(7):1057-62.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Inhaled corticosteroids and risk of pneumonia: evidence for and against the proposed association. QJM 2010; 103(6):379-85.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Scally C, Fawzi A, Murray MP, Hill AT. Risk Factors for complicated parapneumonic effusion and empyema on presentation to hospital with community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2009; 64(7);592-7.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Scally C, Hill AT. Admission D-Dimer can identify low risk patients with community acquired pneumonia. Ann Emerg Med. 2009; 53(5);633-8.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Admission hypoglycaemia is associated with adverse outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2009; 34(4):932-9.
Kilpatrick DC, Chalmers JD, MacDonald SL, Murray MP, Mohammed A, Hart SP, Matsushita M, Hill AT. Stable bronchiectasis is associated with low serum L-Ficolin concentrations. Clinical Respiratory Journal 2008; 3(1); 29-33.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Predicting the Need for Mechanical Ventilation and/or inotropic support for young adults admitted with community-acquired pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47(12):1571-4.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Murray MP, Hill AT. Prior Statin Use is Associated with Improved Outcomes in Community Acquired Pneumonia. Am J Med. 2008;121(11):1002-1007.e1
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. Systolic blood pressure is superior to other haemodynamic predictors of outcome in community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2008; 63(8):698-702.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Hill AT. C- reactive protein is an independent predictor of severity in community acquired pneumonia. Am J Med 2008;121(3):219-225.
Blyth KG, Syyed R, Chalmers J, Foster JE, Saba T, Naeije R, Melot C, Peacock AJ. Pulmonary arterial pulse pressure and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Respir Med. 2007;101(12):2495-501.
Chalmers JD, Campling J, Dicker A, Woodhead M, Madhava H. A systematic review of the burden of vaccine preventable pneumococcal disease in UK adults. BMC Pulm Med 2016;16(1):77.
Salih W, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Simplification of the IDSA/ATS criteria for severe community-acquired pneumonia. Eur Respir J 2014;43(3):842-51.
Chalmers JD, Rother C, Salih W, Ewig S. Healthcare associated pneumonia does not accurately identify potentially resistant pathogens: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2014; 58(3):330-9.
Singanayagam A, Schembri S, Chalmers JD. Predictors of mortality in hospitalized adults with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Annals of the American Thoracic Society 2013; 10(2):81-9.
Chalmers JD, Mandal P, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Choudhury G, Scally C, Short PM, Hill AT. Severity assessment tools to guide ICU admission in community-acquired pneumonia: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Intensive Care Med. 2011; 37(9):1409-20.
Akram AR, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Predicting mortality with severity assessment tools in outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia. QJM 2011; 104(10):871-9.
Chalmers JD, Fleming GB, Hill AT, Kilpatrick DC. Impact of mannose binding lectin (MBL) insufficiency on the course of cystic fibrosis: a review and meta-analysis. Glycobiology 2011;21(3):271-82.
Chalmers JD, Akram AR, Hill AT. Increasing outpatient treatment of mild community-acquired pneumonia: systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Respir J 2011; 37(4):858-64.
Chalmers JD, Singanayagam A, Akram AR, Mandal P, Short PM, Choudhury G, Wood V, Hill AT. Severity assessment tools for predicting mortality in hospitalised patients with community acquired pneumonia. Thorax 2010; 65(10):878-83.
Guidelines and Consensus Statements
Aliberti S, Masefield S, Polverino E, De Soyza A, Loebinger MR, Menendez R, Ringshausen FC, Vendrell M, Powell P, Chalmers JD. Research priorities in bronchiectasis: a consensus statement from the EMBARC Clinical Research Collaboration. Eur Respir J 2016 in press.
Selected Reviews and invited submissions
Wilcox M, Chalmers JD, Nord CE, Freeman J, Bouza E. The role of cephalosporins in the era of Clostridium Difficile infection. J Antimicrob Chemother in press.
Suarez-Cuartin G, Chalmers JD, Sibila O. Diagnostic challenges of bronchiectasis. Respir Med 2016;116:70-7.
Rae N, Finch S, Chalmers JD. Cardiovascular disease as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2016;22(3):212-8.
Cilloniz C, Torres A, Niederman M, van der Eerden M, Chalmers J, Welte T, Blasi F. Community-acquired pneumonia relaed to intracellular pathogens. Intensive Care Med 2016;42(9):1374-86.
Chalmers JD, Loebinger M, Aliberti S. Challenges in the Development of New Therapies for Bronchiectasis. Curr Opinion in Pharmacotherapy. 2015;16(6):833-50.
Rae N, Chalmers JD. Antibiotic prophylaxis Is ineffective in preventing pneumonia post-stroke. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2015;45(4):276-7.
Jose RJ, Chalmers JD, Greening NJ, Janes SM. Review of the British Thoracic Society Winter Meting 2015, 2-4h December London UK. Thorax 2016;71(6):555-9.
Greening NJ, Jose RJ, Chalmers JD, Janes SM. Review of the British Thoracic Society Winter Meeting 2014, 3-5th December, London, UK. Thorax 2015; 70(3):278-83.
Chalmers JD, Aliberti S, Blasi F. State of the art: management of bronchiectasis in adults. Eur Respir J 2015; 45(5):1446-62.
Chalmers JD, Greening NJ, Jose RJ, Janes SM. Review of the British Thoracic Society Winter Meeting 2013, 4-6th December, London, UK. Thorax 2014; 69(4):378-82.
Poppelwell L, Chalmers JD. Defining severity in non-CF bronchiectasis. Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine. 2014;8(2):249-62.
Gifford A, Chalmers JD. The role of neutrophils in cystic fibrosis. Current Opinion in Haematology 2014; 21(1):16-22.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. The evidence for severity assessment tools to guide empirical antibiotic prescribing decisions in community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2013;1(8):653-62.
Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Mechanisms of immune dysfunction and bacterial persistence in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis. Molecular Immunology 2013; 55(1):27-34.
Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Diagnosis in suspected lower respiratory infection and therapy resistance. Praxis (Bern 1994) 2012;101(3):191-4.
Chalmers JD, Rutherford J. Can we use severity assessment tools to increase outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia? Eur J Intern Med 2012;23(5):398-406
Kilpatrick DC, Chalmers JD. Human L-ficolin (ficolin-2) and its clinical significance. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2012:2012:138797.
Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Elder DH, Chalmers JD. Is community-acquired pneumonia an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease? Eur Respir J 2011; 39(1):187-96.
Singanayagam A, Singanayagam A, Wood V, Chalmers JD. Factors associated with severe illness in Pandemic 2009 influenza A (H1N1) infection: implications for triage in primary and secondary care. Journal of Infection 2011; 63(4):243-51.
Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Investigation of non-resolving presumed lower respiratory tract infection in primary care. BMJ 2011; 343:d5840.
Chalmers JD, Short PM, Mandal P, Akram AR, Hill AT. Statins in community-acquired pneumonia: Evidence from experimental and clinical studies. Respir Med. 2010; 104(8):1081-91.
Chalmers JD, Al-Khairalla M, Short PM, Fardon TC, Winter JH. Proposed changes to management of lower respiratory tract infections in response to the Clostridium difficile epidemic. J Antimicrob Chemother 2010; 65(4):608-18.
Singayagam A, Chalmers JD, Hill AT. Severity assessment in community-acquired pneumonia: a review. QJM 2009; 102(6):379-88.
Editorials and correspondence
Chalmers JD, Reyes LF, Aliberti S, Restrepo MI. Empirical coverage of MRSA in community-acquired pneumonia: those who do not remember the past are doomed to repeat it. Clin Infect Dis 2016 in press.
Sotgiu G, Dore S, Chalmers JD, Aliberti S. Clinical phenotypes in bronchiectasis: right on track to develop precision medicine in respiratory diseases. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2016;20(5):709.
Chalmers JD. Bronchiectasis: working together for better evidence. Lancet Respir Med 2015;3(12):915-7.
Abo-Leyah H, Chalmers JD. Middle east respiratory syndrome: the need for better evidence in severe respiratory viral infections. Crit Care Med 2015; 43(6):1344-6..
Chalmers JD. Identifying severe community-acquired pneumonia: moving beyond mortality. Thorax 2015; 70(6):515-6. .
Chalmers JD, Elborn JS. Reclaiming the name “bronchiectasis” Thorax 2015; 70(5):399-400.
Blasi F, Chalmers JD, Aliberti S. COPD and Bronchiectasis: phenotype, endotype or co-morbidity? COPD 2014;11(6):603-4.
McAllister K, Chalmers JD. Old drugs for bad bugs: aerosolized antibiotics for ventilator associated pneumonia. Critical Care Medicine 2015; 43(4):697-8.
Chalmers JD. Bronchiectasis trials: losing the battle but winning the war? Lancet Respiratory Medicine 2(9):679-81.
Chalmers JD. Community-acquired pneumonia severity prediction- what are we predicting and why? QJM 2015; 108(2):173-4.
Chalmers JD, Finch S. Sputum colour in bronchiectasis, the original neutrophil biomarker. Respirology 2014; 19(2):153-4.
Chalmers JD, Aliberti S. Preventing arterial catheter associated bloodstream infections: common sense and chlorhexidine. Critical Care Medicine 2014; 42(6):1533-4.
Chalmers JD. Macrolides and Mortality in Severe Community-acquired pneumonia. Critical Care Medicine 2014;42(2):475-7.
Chalmers JD, Black E. Critical Care Transition and prevention of ICU readmissions: a bridge over troubled waters. Critical Care Medicine 2014;42(1):216-7.
Singanayagam A, Chalmers JD. Budesonide and risk of pneumonia. Lancet 2009; 374(9707);2050.
Chalmers JD, Hill AT. A powerful new severity score- but will anyone use it? Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 47(10):1363.
Chalmers JD. ICU admission and severity assessment in community-acquired pneumonia. Crit Care 2009; 13(3):156
Books and Book Chapters
European Respiratory Monograph: Community-acquired pneumonia. Editors: Chalmers JD, Pletz M, Aliberti S.
200 Chest x-ray cases (published 2010, The London Press). Authors: Al-Khairalla MZ, Chalmers JD, Fardon TC.
Encyclopedia of Intensive Care Medicine, Editors JL Vincent and JB Hall. (Published January 2012)- Chapter – Bronchitis and Bronchiectasis.
European Board for Accreditation in Pneumology council member and secretary– (since 2014)
European Hermes Board Member for Respiratory Infection- (since 2014)
James is actively involved in undergraduate and postgraduate teaching. One of his major interests in encouraging undergraduates and young physicians to take part in research projects. Some recent successes for supervised undergraduate (UG) students and postgraduates (PG) include:
Christopher Fong (UG): Project (neutrophil extracellular traps in COPD)- won American Thoracic Society abstract award, young scientist scholarship and rising star awards 2016.
Dr Alison Dicker (PG): Project (The Microbiome in COPD)- won European Respiratory Society Respiratory Infections Award 2015, European Respiratory Society best abstract award 2015, British Lung Foundation abstract award 2016.
James Hill (UG): Project (Heterogeneity of inflammation in bronchiectasis): won European Respiratory Society Young Scientist Award 2015
Caitlin Hamill (UG) project: (An exaggerated placebo effect in randomized controlled of non-CF bronchiectasis, an unexpected finding)- Won Scottish Thoracic Society Methven Prize 2014.
Catriona Rother (UG) project: Healthcare associated pneumonia- investigating the validity of a new definition of pneumonia. Won ERS Young investigator award. 2013 and University of Dundee Ethicon Prize 2013.
Waleed Salih (PG) project: Microbiology and antibiotic therapy in bronchiectasis: European Respiratory Society best abstract award 2013.
Lucy Poppelwell (UG) project: Predicting outcome in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Won DRAMS best presentation award 2013
Dr Michelle Harrison (PG): Project: Predictors of mortality in hospitalised exacerbations of COPD)- Won British Thoracic Society Young Investigator award 2012 and Discovery Dundee Young Investigator Award 2013.
Dr Anika Singanayagam (PG): Project: The obesity paradox in community-acquired pneumonia: Won ERS Young Research Grant in respiratory infections 2012.
Ross Archibald (UG) project: A scoring system to predict outcome in exacerbations of COPD. University of Dundee Ethicon Prize 2011.
Gilly B Fleming (UG) Project: Role of Galectin-3 in predicting short and long term outcome in community-acquired pneumonia. Won ATRIUM undergraduate research award. 2010
Victoria Wood (UG) project: Clinical features and outcomes of 2009 H1N1 influenza A infection. British Lung Foundation award 2010.
In addition, he was co-organiser of European Respiratory Society courses in bronchiectasis and non-tuberculous Mycobacterial disease. http://www.erscongress2011.org/education/courses/item/4739-online-course-on-hot-topics-in-the-management-of-non-cf-bronchiectasis.html.
(selected from >100)
2016 European Respiratory Society Conference, London: Bronchiectasis, registries and real life studies.
2016 South African Thoracic Society: Antibiotic resistance in the 21st Century
2016 World Bronchiectasis Conference, Hannover: Omics approaches to understanding airway inflammation in bronchiectasis.
2016 American Thoracic Society Conference: The microbiome in bronchiectasis
2015 British Thoracic Society Plenary Scientific Symposium: Neutrophils in bronchiectasis
2015 University of St Andrews: The microbiome and chronic lung disease
2015 European Respiratory Society Congress, Amsterdam: First results of the EMBARC registry
2015 University of Manchester: State of the Art management of bronchiectasis
2015 House of Commons, Westminster, UK: Respiratory Infection and Winter Pressures
2015 South American Respiratory Summit, Buenos Aires: Healthcare associated pneumonia
2015 Nordic Respiratory Summit, Copenhagen: State of the art management of bronchiectasis
2015 American Thoracic Society, Denver: Long term outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia
2015 ARENA, University of Oxford: Bronchiectasis
2015 COPD 2015: Valencia, Spain: The New European Bronchiectasis Registry, EMBARC
2014 American Thoracic Society: Hot topic, macrolide safety in respiratory disease
2014 American Thoracic Society: Inhaled antibiotics
2014 American Thoracic Society: A worldwide perspective on MDR pathogens
2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases- Macrolide safety in respiratory infections.
2014 University of Newcastle: The role of neutrophils in bronchiectasis progression
2014 University Hospital Sant Pau, Barcelona- inhaled antibiotics in bronchiectasis
2014 CHEST World Congress ; non-responding pneumonia
2014 CHEST World Congress ; The role of inhaled antibiotics
2013 Scottish Thoracic Society: Controversies in respiratory infections
2013 Biomarkers in respiratory infection: Centre for Infection and Immunity, Queens University, Belfast,
2012 European Respiratory Society – Severe community-acquired pneumonia
2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases- Severity assessment in community acquired pneumonia.
2012 Severity assessment in community-acquired pneumonia: University of Liverpool